Mountains® allows you to analyze simple but also composite data obtained using a very wide range of surface analysis instruments & microscopes.
The following are some of the most common data types managed.
Topography and images from profilometers, optical profilers, microscopes etc.
Data type  Formula  Description  Suitable for…  Example application  
Profile  z=f(x)  A profile is a measurement of heights along a line on a surface. The height Z is expressed according to a position X. 



Series of profiles  z=f(x,t)  Several profiles packed together as a single data set 



Parametric profile (“contour”)  (x,z) = f(t)  The outer line of one or several objects. Contrary to the standard profile (in which only one side is studied), a parametric profile may contain overhangs and closed contours. 



Surface  z=f(x,y)  A surface is a measurement of heights over a rectangular area of a surface. The height Z is expressed according to a position X,Y. 



Series of surfaces  z=f(x,y,t)  Several surfaces packed together as a single data set 



Shell  Freeform surface
Meshes representing the outer shell of an object 



Multichannel image  (z1,z2,…zn) = f(x,y)  Multiple signal analysis over a rectangular area. Note: Prior to V9.0, this data type was called “Multilayer surface”. 



Image  (R,G,B) = f(x,y)
or G = f(x,y) 
A common image where each X,Y pixel has a “true” color (RGB) or possibly just a gray level (G) 



Series of images  (R,G,B) = f(x,y,t)  A collection of images packed into a single data set 

In Mountains®, a series of images is often used for 3D reconstruction. This can be :
The result can then be studied as a surfaceimage data type (see below). 

Surfaceimage  (Z,R,G,B) = f(x,y)
or (Z,G) = f(x,y) 
An association of a surface and an image packed into a single data set
The image can be a true color image (RGB) or a gray level image (G) 



Point cloud  (x,y,z)  A set of space coordinates with no established order nor relation between them 


AFM Force curve analysis
Data type  Description  
Force curve  Used in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), force curves represent the deflection of the cantilever according to its vertical distance from the sample. The measurement consists of two curves, the approach curve (blue) and the retract curve (red).  
Series of force curves  A collection of force curves packed into a single data set  
Force volume  A force volume studiable is a grid of equally spaced force curves. Each point in the image corresponds to a force curve that contains an approach and a retract curve.
This set of force curves is considered as a single object. Note: this type of studiable has the structure of a “data cube” (virtual multidimensional structure, with only two metric axes). 
Spectral and hyperspectral analysis
Data type  Formula  Description  Suitable for…  Example application  
Spectrum curve(s)  Generated by a spectrometer. Peaks in the spectrum curve are detected automatically. 



Hyperspectral image  In a hyperspectral image, each pixel represents a full spectrum. The color of the pixel in a slice gives information about the intensity or amplitude of the spectrum at the given wavenumber. Note: this type of studiable has the structure of a “data cube” (virtual multidimensional structure, with only two metric axes) Note: Prior to V9.0, this data type was called “hyperspectral cube”. 


Multichannel cube  (i1,i2,…iN) = f(x,y,z)  A cube of voxels encoding the chemical composition of a material.
Each voxel located at (x,y,z) encodes one value per channel, each channel (1 to N) representing the abundance of a given material. 


What if my instrument data type is not listed above?
The above list contains data types available in currently released versions of Mountains®.
However other data types, already developed in the frame of private projects or for future versions, may also be managed. Please contact us.